Introduction: The number of HIV&AIDS cases is increasing, and heterosexual transmission serves as the main mode of HIV transmission in Bali. Most female cases are intimate partners of male cases; however, the current counseling is delivered for individuals rather than for couples. It has been documented that CHCT can reduce HIV transmission among discordant couples, thus it is important to explore the views from high risk populations regarding CHCT implementation in Bali. Methods: A qualitative study was conducted in February 2013 to explore views from high risk populations regarding CHCT in Bali. Two focus group discussions were conducted with female sex workers (FSWs) and several injected drug users (IDUs) were interviewed. Data were analyzed thematically. Results: In general, both FSWs and IDUs expressed their acceptance of CHCT; however, there are several conditions that may challenge the implementation. Some FSWs are still reluctant to open their HIV status to their partners because it could result in violence, abandonment or divorce. In contrast, some FSWs are willing to open their HIV status as they want to have children and to get support from their partners. However, most FSW’s partners refuse to get tested because they are afraid of the positive result. Moreover, they have a low perceived risk of HIV. IDUs explained that CHCT will need experienced and skilled counselors as IDUs are generally difficult to let others know about their high risk behaviors. Conclusion: CHCT is well accepted by FSWs and IDUs in Bali; however, it will need experienced and skilled counselors to motivate them opening their HIV status and high risk behaviors to their partners. Disclosure of Interest Statement: This study is funded by National AIDS Commission of Indonesia and HIV Corporation Program for Indonesia (HCPI).
HIV disease is associated with chronic inflammation and activation of the innate immune system. This state, as measured using plasma markers of inflammation, persists following suppression of HIV viremia using antiretroviral therapy, and may increase risk of non-AIDS co-morbidities. The causes of innate immune activation in the setting of virological suppression are unclear. Natural killer (NK) cells are innate immune cells that kill virus-infected and transformed cells without prior sensitization. We have shown that NK cells are activated both phenotypically (elevated expression of HLA-DR) and functionally (increased spontaneous degranulation measured by CD107a surface expression) in virologically suppressed (VS) HIV+ individuals. NK cells also lose expression of CD16, the receptor which mediates antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity.
Regular HIV testing is recommended in men who take sexual risks. We assessed the relationship between perceived barriers to HIV testing, and frequency of testing among men who engaged in unprotected anal intercourse with casual partners (UAIC), to inform HIV testing strategies.
The majority of HIV diagnoses including delayed diagnoses in Australia occur among men who report homosexual contact – hereafter called gay and bisexual men (GBM). Delayed diagnosis is strongly associated with increased HIV-related mortality and morbidity. People who are unaware of their HIV-positive status may also be unwittingly transmitting HIV. We assessed trends in delayed HIV diagnoses among GBM in Australia.
HIV-associated leishmaniasis, endemic in the Mediterranean basin is a growing problem in India, Brazil and East Africa. Despite surviving for than 20 years, the clinical course of our visceral-leishmania (VL)-HIV co-infected patient illustrates several management challenges including diagnosis, speciation and drug resistance; monitoring burden of disease; access to and use of VL-treatments; end-organ toxicity and the combined immunosuppressive effects of HIV-VL.
Adherence to combination antiretroviral therapy (cART ) plays an important role on treatment outcomes. The TREAT Asia Studies to Evaluate Resistance – Monitoring Cohort Study (TASER-M) collects patients’ adherence based on a Visual Analogue Scale. The aim of this analysis was to assess the rates of, and factors associated with, suboptimal adherence in the first 24 months of initial cART in Asian patients.
REACH was a collaborative research and practice initiative to develop evidence building frameworks, capacity, tools and resources with the Victorian HIV community partnership.
Early first sexual intercourse has been proposed as an important marker of later sexual and reproductive health. Discussions of what constitutes early sexual debut in this context, however, have been limited.