Vietnam’s HIV sentinel surveillance system began collecting behavioral data among men who have sex with men (MSM) in 4 provinces in 2010 and expanded to 8 provinces in 2012. This data provides a better understanding of risk behaviors. The aim is to determine HIV prevalence and coverage of prevention services among men who have sex with men (MSM).
Cross-sectional surveys were conducted. Participants were selected based on geographic mapping exercise and through peer educators. To collect key behavioral and programmatic indicators, 30 behavioral questions were added to the serosurveys among MSM. 1009 and 1960 MSM provided blood and interviews in 2010 and 2012. HIV prevalence among MSM and drug injecting-MSM were 6.0% vs 1.3% and 11.1% vs 9.7%, in 2010 and 2012. MSM receiving free condoms and syringes in the last month were 39.8% vs 45.5% and 36.9% vs 40.&%, respectively in 2010 and 2012. MSM receiving sexually transmitted infections screening in the last 3 months were 13.2% and 23.7% in 2010 and 2012. HIV testing in the past year and knowing the result were 20.7% and 45.3% in 2010 and 2012 respectively.
HIV prevalence was high among drug injecting-MSM and varying among provinces. Access to HIV prevention services increased but still at low level and varied by service and province. Access to HIV prevention efforts needs to be broadened with a focus on drug injecting-MSM.
The majority of HIV diagnoses including delayed diagnoses in Australia occur among men who report homosexual contact – hereafter called gay and bisexual men (GBM). Delayed diagnosis is strongly associated with increased HIV-related mortality and morbidity. People who are unaware of their HIV-positive status may also be unwittingly transmitting HIV. We assessed trends in delayed HIV diagnoses among GBM in Australia.
HIV-associated leishmaniasis, endemic in the Mediterranean basin is a growing problem in India, Brazil and East Africa. Despite surviving for than 20 years, the clinical course of our visceral-leishmania (VL)-HIV co-infected patient illustrates several management challenges including diagnosis, speciation and drug resistance; monitoring burden of disease; access to and use of VL-treatments; end-organ toxicity and the combined immunosuppressive effects of HIV-VL.
Adherence to combination antiretroviral therapy (cART ) plays an important role on treatment outcomes. The TREAT Asia Studies to Evaluate Resistance – Monitoring Cohort Study (TASER-M) collects patients’ adherence based on a Visual Analogue Scale. The aim of this analysis was to assess the rates of, and factors associated with, suboptimal adherence in the first 24 months of initial cART in Asian patients.
REACH was a collaborative research and practice initiative to develop evidence building frameworks, capacity, tools and resources with the Victorian HIV community partnership.
HIV disease is associated with chronic inflammation and activation of the innate immune system. This state, as measured using plasma markers of inflammation, persists following suppression of HIV viremia using antiretroviral therapy, and may increase risk of non-AIDS co-morbidities. The causes of innate immune activation in the setting of virological suppression are unclear. Natural killer (NK) cells are innate immune cells that kill virus-infected and transformed cells without prior sensitization. We have shown that NK cells are activated both phenotypically (elevated expression of HLA-DR) and functionally (increased spontaneous degranulation measured by CD107a surface expression) in virologically suppressed (VS) HIV+ individuals. NK cells also lose expression of CD16, the receptor which mediates antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity.
Regular HIV testing is recommended in men who take sexual risks. We assessed the relationship between perceived barriers to HIV testing, and frequency of testing among men who engaged in unprotected anal intercourse with casual partners (UAIC), to inform HIV testing strategies.
Gay men remain the primary population affected by HIV in Australia. While recent attention has been focused on increasing HIV testing and the use of antiretroviral-based prevention to reduce infections, it is equally important to sustain safe sex and other risk reduction practices. Increases in unprotected anal intercourse (UAI), for example, may counteract any beneficial changes in testing and treatment.