A cross-sectional internet based survey of Australian MSM was undertaken. Participants were asked to provide information on their use of PDE-5Is, demographic variables and to complete the MSM version International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-MSM). The six item ED score (EF-6) was used in the analysis. Univariate and binary logistic regression (BLR) analyses were undertaken for those attempting active anal intercourse (GP 1, n=324) and those attempting all forms of sexual activity (GP 2, n=237). Independent variables included in the BLR were age, casual partner, regular partner, smoking and EF-6 score.
Univariate analysis of GP 1 and 2 found age, EF-6 and having sex with casual partners were associated with PDE-5I use. BLR analysis found significant models for both analyses [GP1: (N = 308, χ2 = 95.8, df = 2, p <0.0005; GP2: N= 227, χ2 = 73.44, df = 2, p < 0.0005]. Age [GP1: OR 1.07 (95%CI 1.05, 1.10); GP2: OR 1.07 (95% CI 1.06, 1.09)] and EF-6 [GP1: OR 0.90 (95% CI 0.86, 0.94); GP2: OR 0.89 (95% CI 0.85, 0.93)] were found to be predictors of PDE-5I use for both analyses.
The current results suggest that ED and age are the primary factors predicting PDE-5I use in this sample. While sex with a casual partner was associated with PDE-5I use in the uivariate analyses, which may suggest a contribution of recreational use or psycho-social factors, it did not remain significant in the multivariate analyses.
Adherence to combination antiretroviral therapy (cART ) plays an important role on treatment outcomes. The TREAT Asia Studies to Evaluate Resistance – Monitoring Cohort Study (TASER-M) collects patients’ adherence based on a Visual Analogue Scale. The aim of this analysis was to assess the rates of, and factors associated with, suboptimal adherence in the first 24 months of initial cART in Asian patients.
REACH was a collaborative research and practice initiative to develop evidence building frameworks, capacity, tools and resources with the Victorian HIV community partnership.
HIV disease is associated with chronic inflammation and activation of the innate immune system. This state, as measured using plasma markers of inflammation, persists following suppression of HIV viremia using antiretroviral therapy, and may increase risk of non-AIDS co-morbidities. The causes of innate immune activation in the setting of virological suppression are unclear. Natural killer (NK) cells are innate immune cells that kill virus-infected and transformed cells without prior sensitization. We have shown that NK cells are activated both phenotypically (elevated expression of HLA-DR) and functionally (increased spontaneous degranulation measured by CD107a surface expression) in virologically suppressed (VS) HIV+ individuals. NK cells also lose expression of CD16, the receptor which mediates antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity.
Regular HIV testing is recommended in men who take sexual risks. We assessed the relationship between perceived barriers to HIV testing, and frequency of testing among men who engaged in unprotected anal intercourse with casual partners (UAIC), to inform HIV testing strategies.
The majority of HIV diagnoses including delayed diagnoses in Australia occur among men who report homosexual contact – hereafter called gay and bisexual men (GBM). Delayed diagnosis is strongly associated with increased HIV-related mortality and morbidity. People who are unaware of their HIV-positive status may also be unwittingly transmitting HIV. We assessed trends in delayed HIV diagnoses among GBM in Australia.
HIV-associated leishmaniasis, endemic in the Mediterranean basin is a growing problem in India, Brazil and East Africa. Despite surviving for than 20 years, the clinical course of our visceral-leishmania (VL)-HIV co-infected patient illustrates several management challenges including diagnosis, speciation and drug resistance; monitoring burden of disease; access to and use of VL-treatments; end-organ toxicity and the combined immunosuppressive effects of HIV-VL.
Most Australian guidelines for clinical screening of chlamydia infection advise testing sexually active individuals aged 16-24 years. Recent research shows that age at first sex in Australia is decreasing; a recent Victorian survey showed 29% of respondents reported being sexually active before age 16 years. There is also evidence that younger age at first sex is associated with risk behavior such as unprotected sex and having multiple sex partners.