In February 2013, Fundasaun Timor Hari’i (FTH) commissioned a Rapid Assessment and Response (RAR) among the People Who Inject Drugs (PWID) in Dili and Bobonaro Districts. Timor-Leste is still considered to have a low-level epidemic, with an estimated national HIV prevalence of approximately 0.1845%, which is non-generalized. Most HIV infections would appear to have been acquired through heterosexual contact, with other routes of transmission likely to occur less often. The RAR aimed at assessing the nature and extent of injecting drug use, types of drugs used, sexual practices and demographic characteristics of drug users.
Research methods included: • Stakeholder meetings, discussions with organisations working in the field • Literature review • Key informant interviews with drug users • Drug user questionnaires • Focus group discussions
Social observation results: • 61% of drug users interviewed were aged 18-26 years old with over 45% of all interviewees having begun using drugs before the age of 19. • 43% of interviewees had used drugs intravenously within the last 3 months. • Most common illicit drugs used were methamphetamine, heroin, cannabis and MDMA. • 61% of PWID’s reported sharing needles, with 32% reporting they share all the time. • Three quarters of those men interviewed had sex with a sex worker and 68% of all interviewees had sex with someone who was not their regular sexual partner. • 84% of those individuals interviewed had never been tested for HIV although 36% believed they were at high risk of infection.
The next step for FTH is to develop a HIV prevention program for PWID based on harm reduction principles. This program will be multi-layered, including political advocacy, further research and a peer education program and condom distribution. FTH will continue to work closely with the MoH to advocate for drug services as well as developing organisational referral pathways to other services available.
Background: STI prevalence is changing. With society aging, life expectancy increasing and changes in sexual practices, STIs in senior citizens are of interest from economic, health related and social burden perspectives. Few studies on STIs in older men greater than 60 years of age exist, hence, a need to obtain further information about this subpopulation.
Conducting clinical audits in the context of continuous quality improvement (CQI) programs in Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Services (ACCHS) has provided valuable information regarding what factors facilitate or create challenges to improving outcomes in sexual health service delivery.
Homosexual men are at increased risk of anal cancer. Screening and treatment of the precursor, HSIL, has been advocated by some, but screening is not recommended in widely-accepted guidelines. We aimed to describe the prevalence, incidence, and clearance rates of anal HSIL, and association with human papillomavirus (HPV) status, in a community-recruited cohort of homosexual men.
HIV positive gay men have high rates of cigarette smoking. The risks of smoking in addition to the elevated risk of cardiovascular disease and some malignancies in people with HIV means smoking cessation interventions should be prioritised.
We investigated the association between chlamydia detection and stage in the menstrual cycle to investigate whether chlamydia detection was higher at different stages of the cycle. Electronic medical records for women attending Melbourne Sexual Health Centre March 2011 - 31st December 2012, who were tested for chlamydia by nucleic acid amplification of high vaginal, cervical, or urinary samples, and who recorded a date of last normal menstrual period (LNMP) between 0-28 days were included in the analysis. Logistic regression was used to calculate OR (95%CI) for the association of chlamydia with menstrual cycle adjusted by demographics and behavioural variables.
Chlamydia is prevalent among young Australians. The latest national surveillance report (2011) shows a rate of diagnosis of 1400 per 100,000 population aged 15-29 years. In Victoria, the number of notifications in 2011 was 19,238; 81% in 15-29 year olds; however notifications continue to rise in all age groups. International evidence suggests chlamydia reinfection is responsible for a substantial burden of infections. Given the associated health risks, monitoring reinfection in the population is important to understand disease burden and evaluate interventions. We describe the rate of reinfection and time between infections in Victoria, 2004-2011.