A systematic rapid review was conducted to synthesise the available evidence regarding public health interventions most effective in reducing STI in young people. The review analysed the evidence for public health intervention across different settings, intervention types, and socio-demographic groups. Young people were defined as less than 30 years of age. The review was limited to systematic reviews, meta-analyses and economic evaluations.
The level and type of evidence varied significantly. Evidence about interventions based within schools and primary care included a high proportion of experimental and quasi-experimental studies. Whereas interventions that operate at broader community wide or structural levels, where it is difficult or inappropriate to conduct in controlled experimental contexts, needed to rely on adapted or non-experimental methodologies. Also, due to the complexity of sexual health interventions operating across different health promotion levels it can be difficult to determine the relative impact of a particular intervention from the combined impact of other related interventions.
Programs were most effective in increasing protective behaviours for STIs when they: • were skills, self-efficacy and motivation based programs rather than knowledge based programs; • targeted multiple components of young people’s lives and context in which they live and addressed multiple domains across the interpersonal, social and structural level; • were explicitly based on recognised behavioural and social theories. Evidence showed that no single public health intervention had a sustained long term impact on the sexual health of young people and young adults. Overwhelmingly this pointed towards programs that target multiple aspects of young people’s lives and context and were based within broader interpersonal, social and system level behavioural theories. Specific findings will be presented for programs based within: schools; primary care; mass media; communication technology and social media programs; at-risk or minority youth; Community, Structural and multi-level programs; as well identified research gaps.
Background: STI prevalence is changing. With society aging, life expectancy increasing and changes in sexual practices, STIs in senior citizens are of interest from economic, health related and social burden perspectives. Few studies on STIs in older men greater than 60 years of age exist, hence, a need to obtain further information about this subpopulation.
Conducting clinical audits in the context of continuous quality improvement (CQI) programs in Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Services (ACCHS) has provided valuable information regarding what factors facilitate or create challenges to improving outcomes in sexual health service delivery.
Homosexual men are at increased risk of anal cancer. Screening and treatment of the precursor, HSIL, has been advocated by some, but screening is not recommended in widely-accepted guidelines. We aimed to describe the prevalence, incidence, and clearance rates of anal HSIL, and association with human papillomavirus (HPV) status, in a community-recruited cohort of homosexual men.
Since 2009, the Victorian syphilis enhanced surveillance system has been collecting HIV status and syphilis re-infection status for infectious syphilis cases. Baseline data from 2009 showed that 31% of the infectious syphilis cases were HIV positive and 18% reported were re-infections. This suggested that syphilis transmission among a pool of HIV positive MSM was making a considerable contribution to the syphilis epidemic in Victoria. We analysed the data from 2009 to 2012 to determine whether this pattern of transmission is continuing. Notification data for infectious syphilis between 2009 and 2012 were reviewed by HIV infection status, syphilis re-infection status and risk factor exposures.
HIV positive gay men have high rates of cigarette smoking. The risks of smoking in addition to the elevated risk of cardiovascular disease and some malignancies in people with HIV means smoking cessation interventions should be prioritised.
We investigated the association between chlamydia detection and stage in the menstrual cycle to investigate whether chlamydia detection was higher at different stages of the cycle. Electronic medical records for women attending Melbourne Sexual Health Centre March 2011 - 31st December 2012, who were tested for chlamydia by nucleic acid amplification of high vaginal, cervical, or urinary samples, and who recorded a date of last normal menstrual period (LNMP) between 0-28 days were included in the analysis. Logistic regression was used to calculate OR (95%CI) for the association of chlamydia with menstrual cycle adjusted by demographics and behavioural variables.