This study assessed mortality in a cohort of 1330 transsexuals: 965 male-to-female (MtF), mean age at start 31.4 years, 13,935 patient-years and 365 female-to-male (FtM), mean age at start 26.1 years, 5,550 patient-years. All patients who had started hormones before July 1, 1997 were included and followed till death, last visit or July 1, 2007. Causes of death (ICD-10) were ascertained by medical reports or general practioners.
Observed deaths were compared to the expected numbers (adjusted for age, original sex and period of follow up on hormone treatment) in the general population by standardized mortality ratio (SMR). In the MtF group total mortality was increased by 46% compared to the general population, due to increased numbers of suicide (6), drugs-related deaths (3) and AIDS (9) in the age group 25-39 and to suicide (8) and circulatory disease (13) in the group 40- 64 years old. The increased mortality rate of ischemic heart diseases (SMR:1.74) suggests rather an increased risk than a protective effect of estrogen therapy on IHD. Also the risk of fatal stroke was increased (SMR:2.04) No increased mortality was found in FtM.
In summary, androgen treatment of FtM appears reasonably safe but estrogen treatment of MtF appears associated with elevated IHD and stroke. Further analysis of the role of dose/type of estrogen (ethinylestradiol?) and smoking is needed. In MtF there is a high rate of suicide, AIDS and drugs-related mortality warranting intense preventive action and close follow up.
About 10-15 % of adults have the experience of not getting pregnant, when they have a wish to have a child. For some, this life situation is resolved spontaneously. Some undergo investigation, followed by varying treatments, resulting in a child, some adopt, and for others this situation is permanent, and without a solution. When this is the case, existential questions often arise. Earlier studies show that couples who become parent after IVF-treatment are just as content, or more, with their relationships and sexuality compared to parent who conceived spontaneously. Little is known about the couples who continue their relation without a child. Clinical experiences are that many women and men struggle with questions concerning the meaning of sexuality.
In the framework of the Coalition for Sexual and Bodily Rights in Muslim Societies (CSBR) experience to promote sexual, bodily and reproductive health and rights, this paper will explore women's approach to sexuality, sexual health, sexual rights, and sexual pleasure based on the experience of the Human Rights Education Program for Women (HREP) in Turkey, implemented in 42 cities. The paper will contexualize sexual health and rights in Muslim societies through a human rights approach, drawn on experiences of grassroots movement for women in Turkey, in a context where efforts to promote SRHR contend with patriarchal norms and taboos around sexuality.
Legal education in rural India which circumscribes rights of women with special focus on reproductive rights, rape laws, female feticide, domestic violence, child marriage etc. has played a pivotal role in translating these rights into practice. This has been possible through innovative legal education drives which have identified a set of para-legal women who act as reservoirs of knowledge and are adequately equipped to handle instances of violation of such rights.
It is commonly accepted that sex education should start at early age. Most teachers hold positive attitudes towards programs on sex education, but some surveys showed a discrepancy between overt attitudes towards sex education and willingness to practice this as part of the professional duty.
In many school settings, adolescent sexuality has been discussed largely in terms of sexual behaviour and risk. Little attention has been given to the positive aspects of sexuality and sexual expression. This study sought to explore how key stakeholders in three secondary schools in the UK understand youth sexual behaviours.
Does circumcision reduce the risk of HIV transmission? Relationship between male circumcision and HIV infection based on randomized, controlled intervention trial in three
This presentation, "Responding to the needs of consumers with complex trauma histories a consumer perspective" focuses on the needs of adult survivors of child abuse, highlighting the frequent