In the last two decades an enormous amount of new information about brain networks and functional connectivity has emerged. Multimodal registration of fMRI, PET, Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) and EEG/MEG has resulted in a deeper understanding of how clusters of neurons in nodes of networks rapidly synchronize for brief periods of time.
The presentation will review the integration of structural imaging with functional and effective connectivity with special emphasis on the mechanism of phase shift and phase lock (phase reset) of large masses of neurons for brief periods of time. Correlations between phase reset and brain development, intelligence and autism will also be discussed. The linkage between symptoms and dysregulation in nodes and connections between nodes will be presented with special emphasis on real-time 3-dimmensional imaging of network dynamics and EEG biofeedback.
The brain is an information processing machine adjusting itself to the environment. Information processing can be defined as reducing uncertainty. It has been suggested that the brain developed from an evolutionary point of view once living creatures started moving around in a changing and thus uncertain environment.
Considerable evidence exists to suggest that a variety if not all cortical systems can undergo some type of plastic reorganisation. Modulation of afferent input (sensory deprivation or sensory increase) to the cortical areas represents at least one factor that determines the type of reorganisation observed. This innate plastic response is probably determined to a certain extent by the central integrative state of the neurons and glial components of the functional projection networks involved.
This presentation is a single case study involving the use of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in the treatment of neuropathic back pain, with symptoms described in the lumbar-sacral region of the spine and down the left leg. An examination of the literature indicated that 40-50 percent improvement in pain perception might follow anodal stimulation over the primary motor cortex (M1). Given the report of left leg symptoms, anodal stimulation was applied to the scalp over M1 on the left.