All these techniques have one common advantage, and that is their non-invasiveness; but, except for neurofeedback, they have the disadvantage that the clinical effect is not lasting, even after repeated treatment sessions, except possibly when the techniques are used as an adjunct, for example in rehabilitation settings. Depending on how long the beneficial effect lasts, the repeated sessions can be performed again or an invasive technique can be applied for longer lasting efficacy. Post neuromodulation changes on functional imaging have been used to claim that correlations between pathology and brain changes are causally related. However, these claims have to be interpreted with care, in order not to fall into a new phrenological trap.
The brain is an information processing machine adjusting itself to the environment. Information processing can be defined as reducing uncertainty. It has been suggested that the brain developed from an evolutionary point of view once living creatures started moving around in a changing and thus uncertain environment.
This presentation is a single case study involving the use of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in the treatment of neuropathic back pain, with symptoms described in the lumbar-sacral region of the spine and down the left leg. An examination of the literature indicated that 40-50 percent improvement in pain perception might follow anodal stimulation over the primary motor cortex (M1). Given the report of left leg symptoms, anodal stimulation was applied to the scalp over M1 on the left.
The size and complexity of the nervous system makes it unlikely that changes in a single synapse result in significant changes in the behaviour of an interconnected neural network. Significant changes in neural network behaviour require changes in populations of synapses, defined as multiple synaptic modifications occurring simultaneously at multiple sites. The goal of the presentation is to present a neural network model of human cerebral ontogenesis and to use the model to explain the development of human EEG coherence over the postnatal period from 1.5 to 16 years of age.