A cathodal reference was applied to the contralateral shoulder, in contrast to the contralateral supraorbital region suggested in some studies. Significant gains were obtained from the initial phase of treatment that extended over 14 sessions, with pain reducing from a rating score of 7/10 to less than 1/10. Comorbid clinical depression was also reversed from a rating of 8/10 to less than 2/10. Significant pain reduction following the initial phase of treatment was found to endure for 21 days, with the client then returning for single session re-treatment every three weeks..
The brain is an information processing machine adjusting itself to the environment. Information processing can be defined as reducing uncertainty. It has been suggested that the brain developed from an evolutionary point of view once living creatures started moving around in a changing and thus uncertain environment.
Many diseases have been linked to plastic changes and changes in activity and functional connectivity in the brain, which can be demonstrated by functional imaging, either using resting state imaging (EEG, MEG, fMRI), or by evoked activity. Many brain related diseases can therefore be seen as emerging properties of altered dynamically changing overlapping networks. Different neuromodulation techniques such as Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) and transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) have been used in an attempt to modify the abnormal activity and connectivity. Recently, also transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) and transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS) have been introduced as neuromodulation tools, and LORETA neurofeedback is emerging as another non-invasive neuromodulation tool. Each of these neuromodulation techniques has a different proposed working mechanism which could provide help in selecting the right neuromodulation technique that best suits the pathology related functional imaging changes.
The size and complexity of the nervous system makes it unlikely that changes in a single synapse result in significant changes in the behaviour of an interconnected neural network. Significant changes in neural network behaviour require changes in populations of synapses, defined as multiple synaptic modifications occurring simultaneously at multiple sites. The goal of the presentation is to present a neural network model of human cerebral ontogenesis and to use the model to explain the development of human EEG coherence over the postnatal period from 1.5 to 16 years of age.