A review of neurofeedback and neuromodulation literature was undertaken. The comprehensive bibliography available at the International Society for Neurofeedback and Research (ISNR) was analysed and augmented by a search for neurofeedback publications over the past three years. Modalities reviewed included single and two-site amplitude training (including beta-smr, alpha theta, theta-beta ratio, z-score, alpha training, alpha asymmetry training), coherence training, slow cortical potential training, 19 channel z-score training, LENS neurofeedback, infra low frequency training, TMS training, DCS training and fMRI training. The studies were analysed for year published, subjects, research design, target symptoms and outcomes.
Conclusions were drawn as to what can reasonably be stated concerning the efficacy of these modalities.