The relationship between borderline personality disorder (BPD) and traumatic attachment and abuse in childhood is documented in numerous studies around the world. Over seventy per cent of these patients reported a childhood history of emotional abuse – that is frequent experiences of being shamed or humiliated, being frustrated by being given mixed messages, being put in impossible situations, having their thoughts and feelings denied.
The prevalence of retrospective reports of childhood sexual abuse among these patients suggests that sexual abuse is an important etiological factor; however there are several reasons to conclude that sexual abuse is neither necessary nor sufficient for the development of BPD. Although sexual abuse may not be a primary etiological factor in BPD, it may contribute to the development of BPD through interaction with other pathological childhood experiences, such as other forms of abuse and dysfunctional parental behaviour. They are more likely to have experienced multiple forms of abuse and the abuse they experience is more severe and chronic and related mostly to significant bi-parental failure.
Integration of the individual patient is the aim of psychotherapy – from a troubled state to one of health. It refers not only to integration of split off parts of the dissociated individual; it refers to the ability to regulate affect, to achieve impulse control; to achieve a capacity for trust and to generalize that to other relationships outside; to improve their day to day functioning; to be able to remember traumatic experiences without reliving them and fragmenting; to resolve disturbed relationships and integrate traumatic experiences into the fabric of their being; and develop reflective awareness and a sense of self.
In this paper I will describe the psychological changes that accompany integration, the social changes and the fact that brain changes occur in the psychotherapy of the patient with BPD.
In therapy we are constantly struggling with the paradox and tension between firmness/rigidity and flexibility. The first provides the requisite clarity and stability that generates safety, the second provides for the possibility of change. Boundaries are important in a variety of ways in all therapies. Within the Conversational Model boundaries are seen as central to the notion of self and its development. Without developing the capacity to distinguish between inner and outer there can be no self and thus there can be no distinction between self and other.
We announce our arrival in the world as separate individuals with the cry. The cry, and the environmental response to the cry, determines the initial atmosphere in the consciousness of the neonate.
We tend to think that dream theories started with Freud and Jung. In fact a number of dream pioneers had published on the topic in the late 1800s’ Europe. I spent the last months reading one of
This talk puts forward some ideas towards an answer to this question. The discussion involves observations from two pioneers of dream research, Maury and Hervey de Saint-Denis; a dream of Jung, commented
This seminar creates discussion around one of the most important problems facing any health professional working at the coalface. How do we recognise trauma in the infant, the toddler, the Pre-school child? How are an infant or preschool child’s physical, psychological and mental faculties affected by early trauma? How does the child respond to it in their body and in their psyche? How do we respond as professionals to help the parent, the teacher, the friend, the partner to intervene in a way that will prevent or undo harm? Trauma interferes with a child’s capacity to learn from experiences, trauma creates a vacuum where imagination could be, where play could enact his inner world, where learning as a pleasurable part of living could occur.