The review of research of event related potentials (ERPs) shows that the most common scientific observation is decrease of the P3b wave both in ADHD and schizophrenia. This observation appears to reflect a common dysfunction in ADHD and schizophrenia in the parietal attention system. Dopamine hypotheses of ADHD and schizophrenia will be discussed. The hypotheses imply involvement of different aspects of information processing within the basal ganglia thalamocortical circuits. A recently emerged independent component analysis (ICA) provides a powerful tool for decomposing ERPs into components of different functional meanings. The paper will describe results of application of Independent Component Analysis (ICA) for decomposing a collection of ERPs into independent components associated with different psychological operations (such processing in dorsal and ventral visual streams, orienting response, engagement, motor suppression and conflict monitoring operations). 1000 healthy subjects, 1000 patients with ADHD and 100 patients with schizophrenia participated in this multi-center European study including laboratories from Switzerland (A. Mueller et al.), Norway (S.Hollup et al.), Macedonia (N. Pop-Jordanova et al), and Russia (Kropotov et al). The results of application of the ERP ICA for diagnosis (discrimination) ADHD and schizophrenia from healthy subjects will be presented. In the final part of the paper a methodology for constructing protocols of neurofeedback and tDCS on the basis of comparison the individual ERP parameters with the normative data will be presented. Recently emerged methods of neurotherapy such as sLORETA-based, ERP-based neurofeedback and tDCS will be also introduced in relation to neuromodulation in ADHD and schizophrenia.
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a group of neurodevelopmental conditions that are characterized by social, communicative, and behavioural impairments. Although the neurobiological basis of ASD is
During this session, Terry discusses
• The principle of operation of tDCS;
• The operation of the tDCS hardware;
• Site selection;
• Resources available;