ADHD insights from the Brain Resource International Database over the past decade have lead to new products that provide personalized diagnostic decision support for ADHD and allied conditions, drawing primarily on profiles of emotional functioning and cognitive performance. An overview of these insights and product tools will be provided here, as well as our ongoing extension of this program of ADHD research, which is focused on EEG & arousal biomarkers in clinical subgroups. This extension addresses the key question of mechanism and meaningful biological subgroups within ADHD and allied disorders, and the way in which these relate to treatment options and functional outcomes – with a view to identifying the most beneficial treatment approach for each individual child. In addition, an overview of a related new international study on the efficacy of Neurofeedback in ADHD, INSENTA, will also be presented.
In the 1990s Prof. Yuri Kropotov started his research in the field of quantitative EEG and evoked potentials in normal subjects, in ADHD population and in neurological patients to whom intracranial electrodes were implanted for diagnosis and therapy.
Since the first reports of neurofeedback treatment in ADHD in 1976 many studies have been carried out investigating the effects of neurofeedback on different symptoms of ADHD such as inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity. This technique is also used by many practitioners, but the question as to the evidence-based level of this treatment is still unclear.
Phenotype evaluation of the EEG was proposed in a paper in 2005 published in Clinical Electroencephalography and Neurophysiology. The retrospective analysis of many decades of experience has since been actively evaluated, from published works focusing on basic neuroscience (J. Pop-Jordanov), and the work from Holland on medication response prediction (M. Arns).
Professor Yuri Kropotov demonstrates that by knowing which brain dysfunction is associated with symptoms of ADHD a clinician can suggest the individualised treatment, whether it be medication, neurofeedback, tDCS or GABA agonists.
This paper is an exploration of the theoretical grounds of resilience and hope. In our previous work with women who mother children with ADHD or ASD we found that many women are themselves disabled by their child's disability; they are isolateresild, marginalised and silenced (Carpenter & emerald 2009; Carpenter & Austin 2007). Yet, these women persevere in the face of the ongoing challenges of mothering a child with a disability. We now ask: is this resilience they show, or hope or is it something else again?
There has been an abundance of ADHD neurofeedback (NF) studies in the past decade in an effort to show NF’s efficacy on reducing the cardinal symptoms of ADHD. A recent meta-analysis concluded that NF was an efficacious treatment of ADHD, with a large effect size for inattention and impulsivity and a medium effect size for hyperactivity. Most studies, including the ones in the meta-analysis, have used a wait-list or active control as comparison groups. More recently, there have been a few NF studies using a blinded placebo-controlled design. These studies have shown equivocal results, indicating NF and placebo NF produced similar outcomes.