This paper presents an overview of recent research on gender variants as represented by persons with somatic ‘intersexuality’ or from the ‘transgender’ spectrum. Nomenclature and clinical management of both are undergoing comprehensive review and revision by a variety of professional societies in the current decade.
This paper presents an overview of recent research on gender variants as represented by persons with somatic ‘intersexuality’ or from the ‘transgender’ spectrum. Nomenclature and New genetic research has revealed a complex cascade of genetic and hormonal events in the sexual differentiation of the gonads and the reproductive tract, and the number of hormone-influenced genes involved in the sexual differentiation of the brain has swelled well beyond 100. In addition, improved understanding of epigenetic mechanisms that respond to environmental conditions adds new options for our future understanding of gender variant behavioral developments.
Neuroanatomic studies of cadaver brains and especially the widening use of imaging of the living brain has led to a proliferation of findings on sex differences on all levels of human neuroanatomic organization. First findings on gender variant persons are gradually emerging, although their functional significance is yet to be delineated. In the absence of animal models of identity, our understanding of the development of gender identity and its variants lacks behind that of gender-related behavior.
On the societal level, stigma and discrimination continue to be of major clinical concerns, and several recent studies have added to the systematic documentation of emotional and psychiatric consequences. The increasing emphasis on the human rights approach to the modification of public policy towards persons from the DSD and transgender spectra is therefore a necessary complement to scientific advances.
This presentation, "Responding to the needs of consumers with complex trauma histories a consumer perspective" focuses on the needs of adult survivors of child abuse, highlighting the frequent