Over the last ten years, I have developed several spiritual well-being (SWB) measures based on this model. These measures differ from nearly 190 other psychometric measures of spirituality in that they ask each person for her/his ‘ideals’, which are compared with ‘lived experiences’, i.e., each person becomes the standard against which s/he is assessed.
Spiritual dissonance has been posited as a marked difference between the ideals and lived experience in each of these four domains of SWB. Doctors, nurses and teachers with high levels of spiritual dissonance perceive that less help is provided for their clients. This has implications for the caregivers and their clients. Case studies will also show how spiritual dissonance relates to ‘happiness’ and provides insight into young people ‘of concern’ (EdD, University of Ballarat, 2009)