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The Diathesis-Stress Reciprocal Moderation and Mediation Model

The Diathesis-Stress Reciprocal Moderation and Mediation Model

The diathesis-stress model of psychopathology was put forward in 1960s-1970s, which was the most influential model in half past century, however, the relationship between diathesis and stress, the interactive paths, and the psychophysiological mechanisms of causing-disease were not mentioned in this model. By integrating the relevant research, and based on the system theory, cybernetics, the bio-psychological-social model and positive psychology, the author put forward a new diathesis-stress model. The diathesis-stress reciprocal moderation and mediation model conceptualized diathesis as a set of physical and psychological traits which formed based on heredity and shaped by interaction of heredity and environment.

Diathesis can be classified into health diathesis and vulnerable diathesis by different effects on health and diseases. Stressors include the natural environmental agents (bodily stressors) and psychosocial environmental agents (psychosocial stressors). The physiological/psychological response and coping not only is the results of interaction between stressors and diatheses, but also is the mediator which leads to health or disease consequences. Cognitive-appraisal can be the important mediator among the psychosocial stressors, stress response and coping behavior. Psychological traits (belief, value, self-concept and personality traits) can affect one’s appraisal for psychosocial stressors.

Coping resource and social support could be the moderators between psychosocial stressors and health/disease consequence. The reciprocal moderation and mediation between traits and stressors can result in different consequence, including adaptation and healthy growing, sub-healthy situation, mental disorder and psychophysiological disease. The different health-disease consequence can affect physical/psychological traits loading from feedback loop, and disease consequence may become the new stressor which aggravates the original stress response. The diathesis­ stress reciprocal moderation and mediation model is not only used for explaining mental disorder and psychophysiological disease, but also understanding the different situation from health to disease.

Areas of Interest / Categories: WCP 2014

WCP 2014

It cools the heart - An Investigation on the Psychotherapeutic Effects of Playing the Nkangala

Nkangala is the Chichewa word for mouth-bough or musical bow. This instrument is played by women in Malawi, south-east Africa. During a field research trip in July 2013, Christine Korischek, was able to get some basic instructions on how to play the Nkangala with two women, Cecilia and Elena Gatchepa, in southern Malawi. The personal experience of playing this instrument and the information given by her two teachers are the source of this attempt at exploring the psychotherapeutic effects that are operant when playing the musical bow. In the first part of the talk the Nkangala will be introduced. Brief information on the history of the mouth bow in southern Malawi, as well as how it is made and played will be given. The main part of the talk includes descriptions of experiences when playing the Nkangala and an attempt at investigating on the psychotherapeutic effects. Since the sound projected out is low, the mouth bow is usually played in solitude and not for a large audience.

Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy- Impact on Depressed Outpatients of State Hospital Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria

This study investigates the impact of Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy - Impact on Depressed Outpatients of State Hospital Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria. The sample comprised of 32 men and women 18 years and above. The instrument used for screening was Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation (BSS) while Beck Depression Inventory -II (BDI-II) was used for data collection. The research design adopted for this study was Pre­ Post Experimental Design. Four research hypotheses were formulated and tested at 0.05 level of significance. Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) was the statistical tool employed for processing the data collected.

Presenting Dialectical Behavioural Therapy – Treating Complex Developmental Trauma in Johannesburg’s Specialist Adult Psychotherapy Unit

Internationally, Dialectical Behavioural Therapy is a well-established treatment modality for Borderline Personality Disorder and other affect deregulated disorders. However, it is very labour intensive, and is a huge demand on resources. Ward 4&5, the specialist psychotherapy unit at Tara hospital in Johannesburg offers a DBT based in-patient programme for patients who struggle with various personality disorders as well as mood and anxiety disorders.

The use of clinging, distancing, and focusing on the object as defences in the Borderline disorder of self - a Mastersonian approach

The Epigenetics and Neurochemical Etiology of Eating Disorders

Eating Disorders are often misunderstood and rarely examined from a scientific viewpoint. This presentation explains the neurochemical, genetic and environmental etiology of eating disorders and the treatment implications. Participants will learn assessment tools, have a more complete understanding of these disorders and have proven methods to help their patients. There are neurochemical changes that occur in patients with eating disorders. Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa have different chemicals that promote the respective disorders. Studies are now showing that binge eating can alter brain functioning and promote addiction-like properties in response to some foods. 

South Africa as the Cradle of Gestalt Therapy – 70 years on From Ego, Hunger and Aggression to Professional Competencies of a Gestalt Therapist

When Perls wrote "Ego, Hunger and Aggression" in the 1940's, after having sought refuge in South Africa, fleeing the Holocaust in Europe, the development of Professional Competencies for Psychotherapists was probably not first on his mind. Over the recent decade and since establishing laws regulating the psychotherapeutic profession in different countries, it has become increasingly important to develop our skills to a professional level. Now 70 years later and returning to Gestalt therapy's origins we would like to present the EAGT document about specific competencies of Gestalt therapists originating out of an initiative of EAP with the aim of establishing psychotherapeutic professional standards across Europe.

Effect of Reality Therapy (Rt) on Federal Teachers’ Attitudes Towards Retirement

Two hundred teachers from two Federal Government owned secondary schools in Lagos State were pre-tested using the “Attitude towards Retirement lnventory "(ATRI) developed by the researcher. One hundred and twenty-five respondents scored negatively (i.e. below 100 points) on the ATRI. Out of this number, only ninety-five returned the "Workers Consent Form" (WCF). Fifty out of the 95 consenters were randomly selected to participate in the experiment. The 50 participants were then randomly assigned to two groups of 25 each; RT (Group A) and the Control Group (Group B).